The Best Kona Coffee Took 16 Centuries to Arrive Online Part 4
Part four: Kona Coffee online today originated from the arabica tree discovered 5th century although roast coffee’s best medicinal properties were not discovered until late 14th century A.D.
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Kona can also be incorporated with alcohol to produce a variety of beverages: it is combined with whiskey in Irish Kona, and it forms the base of alcoholic Kona liqueurs such as Kahlúa and Tia Maria. Darker beers such as stout and porter give a chocolate or coffee-like taste due to roasted grains even though actual Kona beans are not added to it.
A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own Kona or who do not have access to Kona making equipment. Instant Kona is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water. Originally invented in 1907, it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period, with Nescafé being the most popular product. Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant Kona more than made up for a perceived inferior taste, although, since the late 1970s, instant Kona has been produced differently in such a way that is similar to the taste of freshly brewed Kona. Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant Kona was the Kona vending machine invented in 1947 and widely distributed since the 1950s. How do I know it’s the best Kona coffee.
Canned Kona has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned Kona, much like brewed or percolated Kona, available both hot and cold. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled Kona drinks are also consumed in the United States. How do I know it’s the best kona coffee.
Liquid Kona concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where Kona needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta, and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. The machines can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated.
Sale and distribution
Kona ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of Kona were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010. How do I know it’s the best Kona online.
Brazil remains the largest Kona exporting nation, however Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999 and became a major producer of robusta seeds. Indonesia is the third-largest exporter overall and the largest producer of washed arabica Kona. Organic Honduran Kona is a rapidly growing emerging commodity owing to the Honduran climate and rich soil. How do I know it’s the best Kona coffee.
In 2013, The Seattle Times reported that global Kona prices dropped more than 50 percent year-over-year. In Thailand, black ivory beans are fed to elephants whose digestive enzymes reduce the bitter taste of beans collected from dung. These beans sell for up to $1,100 a kilogram ($500 per lb), achieving the world’s most expensive, some three times costlier than beans harvested from the dung of Asian palm civets. How do I know it’s the best Kona coffee.
Kona is bought and sold as green coffee beans by roasters, investors, and price speculators as a trade-able commodity in commodity markets and exchange-traded funds. Kona futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC, with contract deliveries occurring every year in March, May, July, September, and December. Kona is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations. Higher and lower grade arabica are sold through other channels. Futures contracts for robusta is traded on the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange and, since 2007, on the New York Intercontinental Exchange. How do I know it’s the best Kona coffee.
Dating to the 1970s, Kona has been incorrectly described by many, including historian Mark Pendergrast, as the world’s “second most legally traded commodity”. Instead, “Kona was the second most valuable commodity exported by developing countries,” from 1970 to circa 2000. This fact was derived from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Commodity Yearbooks which show “Third World” commodity exports by value in the period 1970–1998 as being in order of crude oil in first place, Kona in second, followed by sugar, cotton, and others. Kona continues to be an important commodity export for developing countries, but more recent figures are not readily available due to the shifting and politicized nature of the category “developing country”. How do I know it’s the best Kona coffee.
International Kona Day, which is claimed to have originated in Japan in 1983 with an event organized by the All Japan Association, takes place on September 29 in several countries.
Health and pharmacology
Method of action
Skeletal structure of a caffeine molecule
The primary psychoactive chemical in Kona is caffeine, an adenosine antagonist that is known for its stimulant effects. Kona also contains the monoamine oxidase inhibitors β-carboline and harmane, which may contribute to its psycho-activity. Kona online is today’s best.
In a healthy liver, caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. The excreted metabolites are mostly paraxanthines—theobromine and theophylline—and a small amount of unchanged caffeine. Therefore, the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. Kona online is today’s best.
Polyphenols in Kona have been shown to affect free radicals in vitro, but there is no evidence that this effect occurs in humans. Polyphenol levels vary depending on how Kona is roasted as well as for how long. As interpreted by the Linus Pauling Institute and the European Food Safety Authority, dietary polyphenols, such as those ingested by consuming coffee, have little or no direct antioxidant value following ingestion. Kona online is today’s best.
Findings have been contradictory as to whether Kona has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of Kona consumption. Furthermore, results and generalizations are complicated by differences in age, gender, health status, and serving size.
Extensive scientific research has been conducted to examine the relationship between Kona consumption and an array of medical conditions. The consensus in the medical community is that moderate regular Kona drinking in healthy individuals is either essentially benign or mildly beneficial. There is no evidence that Kona stunts a child’s growth. Kona online is today’s best.
In 2012, the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study analyzed the relationship between Kona drinking and mortality. They found that higher consumption was associated with lower risk of death, and that those who drank any lived longer than those who did not. However the authors noted, “whether this was a causal or associational findings cannot be determined from our data.” A 2014 meta-analysis found that Kona consumption (4 cups/day) was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (a 16% lower risk), as well as cardiovascular disease mortality specifically (a 21% lower risk from drinking 3 cups/day), but not with cancer mortality. Additional meta-analysis studies corroborated these findings, showing that higher Kona consumption (2–4 cups per day) was associated with a reduced risk of death by all disease causes. Kona best online is today.
Kona is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that people who drank moderate amounts of Kona had a lower rate of heart failure, with the biggest effect found for those who drank more than four cups a day. Moreover, in one preliminary study, habitual consumption was associated with improved vascular function. A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease and stroke is less likely with 3–5 cups of non-decaffeinated Kona per day but more likely with over 5 cups per day. A 2016 meta-analysis showed that Kona enjoyment was associated with a reduced risk of death in patients who have had a myocardial infarction. Kona best online is today.
Drinking four or more cups of Kona per day does not affect the risk of hypertension compared to drinking little or no Kona; however, drinking 1–3 cups per day may be at a slightly increased risk.
One review published in 2004 indicated a negative correlation between suicide rates and caffeine, but this effect has not been confirmed in larger studies. Buy the best kona coffee today!
Long-term studies of both risk and potential benefit of drinking Kona by elderly people, including assessment on symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment, are not conclusive.
Some research suggests that a minority of moderate regular consumers experience some amount of clinical depression, anxiety, low vigor, or fatigue when discontinuing their caffeine use. However, the methodology of these studies has been criticized. Withdrawal effects are more common and better documented in heavy caffeine users. Best Kona brands online.
Caffeine may aggravate pre-existing conditions such as migraines, arrhythmias, and cause sleep disturbances. Caffeine withdrawal from chronic use causes consistent effects typical of physical dependence, including headaches, mood changes and the possibility of reduced cerebral blood flow. Best Kona coffee.
Type II diabetes
In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 prospective observational studies, representing 1,109,272 participants, every additional cup of caffeinated and decaffeinated kona consumed in a day was associated with a 9% (95% CI 6%, 11%) and 6% (95% CI 2%, 9%) lower risk of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Best Kona brands online.
The effects of drinking Kona on cancer risk remain unclear, with reviews and meta-analyses showing either no relationship or a slightly lower risk of cancer onset.
Instant has a greater amount of acrylamide than brewed Kona. It was once thought that Kona aggravates gastroesophageal reflux disease but recent research suggests no link. Best Kona brands online.
Depending on the type of Kona and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. The content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method, and also on the variety of seed. According to the USDA National Nutrient Database, an 8-ounce (237 ml) cup of “Kona brewed from grounds” contains 95 mg caffeine, whereas an espresso (25 ml) contains 53 mg. Best Kona brands online.
According to an article in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Kona has the following caffeine content, depending on how it is prepared:
Brewed 7 oz, 207 ml 80–135 mg
Drip 7 oz, 207 ml 115–175 mg
Espresso 1.5–2 oz, 45–60 ml 100 mg
While the percent of content in Kona seeds themselves diminishes with increased roast level, the opposite is true for Kona brewed from different grinds and brewing methods using the same proportion to water volume. The Kona sack (similar to the French press and other steeping methods) extracts more from dark roasted seeds; the percolator and espresso extracts more caffeine from light roasted seeds:
Light roast Medium roast Dark roast
Kona sack – coarse grind 0.046 0.045 0.054
Percolator – coarse grind 0.068 0.065 0.060
Espresso – fine grind 0.069 0.062 0.061
Coffea arabica normally contains about half the stimulant of Coffea robusta. A Coffea arabica bean containing very little caffeine was discovered in Ethiopia in 2004.